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BACK DOOR Newsletter on East Timor

Women's Issues
Kestaun hosi Feto
Perempuan Timor Lorosa’e:

Part 2: violence against women

A collection of recent information, petitions, articles and news relating to East Timorese women (and consequently men).


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Part 2 up-dated: Feb 14, 2002

NEW = Added to BACK DOOR Website since last Monday's Emailout



Contents:

Part 1: context & initiatives

Part 2: violence against women  [this page]
* Domestic Violence
* Sexual & related Violence as a weapon of war
* Other Violence against women




Part 2: violence against women


Domestic Violence:

Jan 30 MFAC: Horta Addresses UN Security Council  Release added Jan 31
"One area in which reported crime is increasing is that of domestic violence, particularly against women. Perhaps the increase in reporting is also indicative of a growing trust in the police and justice system, but this is nevertheless a worrying development. In numerous gatherings around the country many of us have spoken out and appealed to the communities to seriously reflect on this heartbreaking reality in our country and to join efforts to put an end to this. I am pleased with the public information campaign that is now being undertaken by UNTAET, the Transitional Government and the Catholic Church against domestic violence. This is a problem that should be dealt with not only by the justice system, but also by all organs of the state and civil society." Dr Jose Ramos-Horta is Senior Minister & Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Second Transitional Government East Timor

Jan 22 UNTAET: Chief Minister, SRSG Speak Out Against Domestic Violence  News added Jan 24
"Chief Minister Marí Alkatiri and SRSG Sergio Vieira de Mello led the launch today of a nationwide campaign against domestic violence with strong words of support for the women of East Timor. ... The campaign, organized by UNTAET’s Office of Communication and Public Information, aims to use television, radio and other media to disseminate information on domestic violence throughout each of East Timor’s 13 districts. The campaign works in concert with the Civilian Police’s Vulnerable Person’s Units in each district. ... Dili Bishop Carlos Felipe Ximenes Belo lent his voice to one of two public service announcements that will be broadcast on national television." UNTAET Daily Briefing 22 January 2002

October 2001 LHB: Women and Justice  Article added Nov 9
"The justice system can respond to violence against women in a number of important ways by: * clearly prohibiting violence; * ensuring that the justice system treats domestic violence in the same way as other forms of violence; * providing protection for women from continuing violence; and * providing adequate and just compensation for injuries caused by violence." Kate Halliday, Australian-based lawyer & recent volunteer with FOKUPERS (East Timorese Women’s Communication Forum) in Dili

Oct 30 UNSC: ET women: ‘Arria formula’ meeting  Speech added Nov 2
"East Timorese women’s organizations have become increasingly concerned at the growing rate of domestic violence. One half of the cases of violence heard by the courts have been of domestic violence. While examining factors and drawing intervention strategies one thing is certain: women are breaking the traditional culture of silence by reporting acts of abuse that often involve their spouses or brothers." Natércia Godinho-Adams, on behalf of East Timorese women’s organizations

October 2001 LHB: East Timor’s New Judicial System  Article added Oct 30
"Certain violent activity in particular, such as murder or rape, should be treated as criminal offences and penalized accordingly. Amnesty cited several cases in which violent crimes against women and children have been “resolved” by means including the payment of money, sometimes against the victim’s wishes. In the absence of a functioning justice system that has earned the trust of the community, vulnerable groups such as women and children face pressure to accept alternate forms of community “justice” that may place them at greater risk." The Judicial System Monitoring Programme

Oct 15 IRC / Sternberg: Work against sexual & gender based violence  Job added Oct 19
"The [job] position holds lots of possibility and much challenge, working against violence against women in a very conservative Catholic country where domestic violence is a big problem. They [the International Rescue Committee] have been trying, unsuccessfully, to hire for the job for some time. ... There are wonderful women here working for women’s rights who would welcome outside support and expertise!" Jill Sternberg

Sep 12 GLW: West Timor: Jakarta’s militia terrorise refugee camps  Article added Sep 19
“The incidence of violence against women, including domestic violence and sexual assaults, are rife in the camps. Sexual violence includes rape, forced marriages, husbands having many wives (up to 11 in some cases), the making and distribution of pornography, and the incidence and spread of sexual health problems. Payment for prostitution is as low as a packet of noodles, indicating the desperation of the women for adequate food.” Jill Hickson, independent film-maker and member of Action in Solidarity with Indonesia and East Timor (ASIET)

August 2001 LHB: Domestic Violence: A Part of Women’s Daily Lives in ETimor  Article added Aug 22
" ... women have the right to talk about the violence they face and look for a solution. Domestic violence is not simply an individual or family problem as so many people think; it is a societal problem that we must identify as such. There must be support and solidarity from all parts of society: from political leaders; church leaders; legal bodies; and all men and men. All must acknowledge domestic violence as a deep social problem that needs immediate attention. There must be mechanisms to support survivors of violence." Manuela Leong Pereira is the Director of Fokupers

August 2001 LHB: Catholic Women’s Conference in Rome  Article added Aug 22
"At the WUCWO meeting in Rome, international representatives approved a list of 15 resolutions, which they have since forwarded to Pope John Paul II, the United Nations and many other influential individuals and organizations. ... * To work with men, within the Church and society, to eliminate violence against women in all its forms and throughout all countries." La'o Hamutuk: East Timor Institute for Reconstruction Monitoring and Analysis

Jul 29 TAPOL: Dili Court Flouts Women's Rights in Releasing Surgeon from Prison  Release added Aug 1
"In granting the appeal, the court is sending out a message that appears to condone domestic violence, which is known to be fairly widespread in East Timor. Such practices should be firmly condemned, not tolerated. ... TAPOL believes that this case also raises questions about the independence and impartiality of the presiding judges and in particular the question as to whether their decision was influenced by Dr Lobo’s prominent position in East Timorese society." TAPOL, the Indonesia Human Rights Campaign

Jul 27 JSMP Comments to the Sergio Lobo interlocutory appeal  Comments added July 28
"Panel A of the Dili District Court decided to conditionally release Dr Sergio Lobo, ... from detention in Becora prison and place him under house detention until his forthcoming trial. ... JSMP is concerned that this interlocutory decision has the potential to seriously undermine the equally important rights of the victims of crime and violates international human rights law aimed at ensuring the safety and security of every person. Furthermore, the decision seems to reveal a prejudicial attitude, even within the justice system, against respect for women’s rights in East Timor." Judicial System Monitoring Programme news service

Bahasa Indonesia:
Jul 25 TMP: Pernyataan Keprihatinan Atas Sidang Naik Banding  Statement added Aug 1
"Bahwa kami sangat menyesalkan hasil  keputusan Majelis Hakim Panel A pengadilan distrik Dili untuk mencabut penahanan sementara atas tersangka dr Sergio Lobo. Dasar pertimbangan yang dipakai hakim maupun pihak pembela untuk melepaskan dr Sergio Lobo, tidak menunjukkan aspek pembelaan dan keadilan terhadap korban GG. Ernawati." oleh Tim Monitoring Persidangan: Fokupers (Forum Komunikasi Untuk Perempuan Loro Sae); Tim Kuasa Hukum G.G. Ernawati Legal Aid Ukun Rasi’An

Jul 25 CMT: Statement of Concern Regarding the Appeal Hearing  Statement added July 28
"We are extremely disappointed by today’s decision of the High Panel of Judges in District Dili Court to overturn the temporary detention of the accused Dr. Sergio Lobo. The reasoning for the judgement presented by the judges as well as by the defense for the release of Sergio Lobo does not point to concern for justice for the victim, GG. Ernawati." The Court Monitoring Team: Fokupers (the East Timorese Women’s Communication Forum) ; Legal Aid Team of Ukun Rasik An

Jul 12 STL: Luis Carrilho: The law does not recognize ‘public figures’  News from ETimor added July 17
"All people are equal in the eyes of the law and no one is above it, regardless of whether he or she is a renown public figure, ... I understand that he [Dr Sergio Lobo] is an intellectual and a medical doctor. But I stress that no one is above the law ­ and the same applies in Timor Lorosae, ... The judiciary is independent and it will not bow to pressure from any institution or influential people.” Civpol spokesperson Luis Carrilho

Bahasa Indonesia:
Jul 12 NGO Forum / Rede Feto: Tokoh Masyarakat Ditahan Lagi Untuk Kekerasan Rumah Tangga  Pernyataan Pers (added Juli 13)
"Kasus ini akan dijadikan preseden untuk kasus-kasus kekerasan rumah tangga berikutnya dan untuk semua kasus yang melibatkan pejabat masyarakat tinggi ... Sistem pengadilan kita harus memperlakukan semua orang dengan cara sama.” Filomena Reis, Staf Advokasi di NGO Forum Timor Lorosa’e

“Banyak orang Timor percaya bahwa kekerasan rumah tangga adalah masalah pribadi dan tidak patut disidangkan di hadapan umum, ... Kejahatan adalah kejahatan, baik dilakukan di jalan atau di rumah." Laura Abrantes dari Jaringan Perempuan Timor Lorosa’e
...
Jul 12 NGO Forum / Rede Feto: Public Figure Detained Again for Domestic Violence  Release July 13
“This case will set a precedent for future cases of domestic violence and for any cases that involve a high-level official, ... Our legal system must treat all people equally.” Filomena Reis, Advocacy Officer, East Timor NGO Forum
“Many East Timorese still believe that domestic violence is a private issue and is therefore not fit for a public courtroom, ... A crime is a crime, whether committed on the street or in one’s home.” Laura Abrantes, East Timor Women’s Network
...
Jun 18 CAA-OA: A step at a time in East Timor  Interview added June 21
"There’s quite a lot of domestic violence in East Timor, so one of the programmes we support works with community groups on domestic violence and focuses a lot on men. Another one of the issues is economic rights, which involves income-generation activities within society and how that affects education and health issues, improving facilities within the home to get control. Once again, this involves all of the community, not just women, so although a lot of the issues are seen particularly as women’s issues, the actual programme work is with everyone." Keryn Clark, Country Programme Manager, Oxfam Australia (Community Aid Abroad)
...
Jun 17 Guterez: Is access to justice still dependent on position in ETimor?  Article and letter added June 22
"This [domestic violence] case seems to be taking a long time to get to court and ... I feel justice may not be done. With domestic violence being common here and Dr Sergio being a well-known figure the case could be a big move to make it clear that domestic violence is not expectable and illegal. Perhaps it is time for the international community to voice their concern." Jane Guterez

Jun 13 ET NGO: REDE: Donors’ Conference: Women's Issues in East Timor  Paper added June 15
"In the year that has passed since separation from Indonesia, cases of domestic violence have been common, one half of cases of violence heard by the courts have been of domestic violence." REDE Feto Timor Lorosa’e (Timorese Women’s Network)

Jan 15 Guardian: Return of the Revolutionaries
"The discovery of the bodies of four women murdered with machetes in different parts of the country last summer passed almost unnoticed in East Timor. ... The tragedy for the women of East Timor is that those killed in the machete attacks were murdered by their own husbands or brothers. ... After years of a cruel and brutal conflict, the violence learned by the revolutionaries has now been turned on their women. Domestic violence has soared in the past year, according to Milena Pires, 34, a Timorese political lobbyist funded by the Catholic Institute for International Relations. Last year, 169 cases were documented and domestic violence is now the country's prevalent crime, making up 40% of all offences." Maggie O'Kane

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Sexual & related Violence as a weapon of war
Estraga feto / Perkosaan:

Feb 8 CCET: Freedom without justice in East Timor?  Statement added Feb 14
"An international support network of Christian groups and churches at the Twelfth Christian Consultation on East Timor, held in Antwerp from 7-9 December, joined its voice to a mounting international campaign and called for Indonesia to set a deadline of July 2002, after which an international tribunal should be set up to deliver justice. ... [CCET] made the following recommendations to UN bodies: ... 2) The international community should, as a matter of urgency, ensure that the Serious Crimes Unit in East Timor has all the resources in terms of personnel and equipment in order to complete its work efficiently. This would include specialist advisors, technical experts, access to information, including from classified sources, and IT. There should be contingency plans for the granting of protection of key witnesses, including the provision of asylum as and when necessary, and specialists in crimes such as rape and sexual abuse." Catherine Scott for Christian Consultation on East Timor (CCET)

Bahasa Indonesia/Melayu:
Jan 22 Shige: Jepang dan TL: Luka Kekerasan Sulit Dilupakan
Artikel ditambahkan tanggal 22 Januari 2002
"Saya merasa heran bahwa organisasi hak asasi manusia sebenarnya tugas mereka adalah membela martabat korban, justru menginjak-injak dengan menulis, “Walaupun kami (CDHTL) menyadari bahwa kebijakan tersebut (rencana pengiriman Pasukan Bela Diri) mungkin bertentangan dengan konstitusi pemerintah Jepang, namun menurut pandangan kami niat baik tersebut sebagai awal untuk membangun hubungan bilateral yang lebih baik …” (STL, 6 September, 2001). Pertanyaan buat Ibu Isabel Ferreira, SH yang memimpin organisasi hak asasi manusia itu, bahkan sekarang menjabat sebagai Penasehat Hak Asasi Manusia di Kabinet Transisi II: Pernahkah Saudari mendengar langsung kesaksian-kesaksian korban tentang kekejaman tentara Jepang, terutama korban perumpuan perbudakan seks?" Takahashi Shigehito, Perwakilan East Timor Desk, Konferensi Uskup Katolik Jepang

Jan 10 Shige: Japan & ET: Wounds of Violence are Hard to Forget  Article added Jan 22
"I am especially amazed that a human rights organization, whose task is supposed to defend the dignity of victims, has precisely trodden on those dignity, writing that, “although we (CDHTL, Timor Lorosae Human Rights Commission) realize that this decision (the plan to send Self-Defense Forces) may be in violation of the Constitution of the Government of Japan, in our view, we believe it would be a good way to begin to build a better bilateral relationship…” (STL, September 6, 2001). I would like to ask Ms Isabel Ferreira, the Director of this human rights organization and now serving as the advisor on human rights in the second transitional cabinet: Have you ever heard testimonies directly from the victims of the cruelties of the Japanese army, particularly women victims who were forced to serve as sex slaves?" Takahashi Shigehito, Resident Representative of East Timor Desk, Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Japan

Dec 8 ETNGOs: Commemoration Day of the Commencement of the Pacific War  Letter added Jan 24
"The Pacific War which was begun by the Imperial Nation of Japan on 8 December sixty years ago, cost around 40,000 innocent lives in East Timor during the time period of three and half years of the military occupation of the Emperor of Japan. Not only did many East Timorese die, either because they were killed by the Japanese military or the effects of the Pacific War, but there still are victims alive today with wounds, both physical and psychological, such as the comfort women (jugun ianfu), forced labourers and Heiho whose numbers are still unknown. History is very important in order to build a better future. For that reason, mistakes of the past have to be straighten out before steps can be made forward. If not, human history has already proven similar mistakes will be repeated." Representatives of 20 East Timorese Non-Government Organisations (NGOs)

Jan 15 ETAN: Indonesian Judges Will Not Provide Long-Delayed Justice for ETimor  Release added Jan 15
"No one will be tried for the many atrocities that occurred outside of those time periods and locations, or for the coordination of the scorched-earth campaign by senior level security forces personnel. The many crimes specifically directed at women will also not be prosecuted. Many East Timorese victims and witnesses will be too afraid to travel to Indonesia and will not testify,” John M. Miller, spokesperson for East Timor Action Network U.S.

Nov 3 Age: Timor's Haunted Women  Article added Nov 7
"They’re cruel! We don’t want Japanese soldiers back here!” Marta Pereira, one of around 1000 surviving ETimorese women who were used as sex slaves, or “comfort women”, by the Japanese military
“We see it as an important issue - despite their old age, these women are still suffering, ... We struggled 24 years to get Indonesian troops out of here, and now we’re being asked to accept Japanese troops. Japanese support should be in another form. It’s ugly to have troops here when no apology has yet been made.” Natalia de Jesus Cesaltino, Fokupers

Oct 30 UNSC: ET women: ‘Arria formula’ meeting  Speech added Nov 2
"We also call for a return of East Timorese refugees in West Timor, where women and children under the control of the militia are often sexually attacked and suffer from malnutrition and poor health. ... Women were targeted for sexual assault in a cruel and systematic way throughout the Indonesian occupation. Women were subjected to sterilization programs, stripping, rape, and other forms of sexual abuse and humiliation. ... East Timorese women join the rest of society, including Bishop Belo, all political parties and NGOs in appealing for justice for serious crimes including gender-based crimes through an International Tribunal." Natércia Godinho-Adams, on behalf of East Timorese women’s organizations

Sep 3 ETimorese NGOs write to Japanese PM re SDF  Letter added Sep 6
"The East Timorese people had a bitter experience with the Japanese military during the Second World War. Many East Timorese have been victims/survivors of abuse by Japanese troops, as forced laborers and sexual slaves (‘comfort women’/jugun ianfu). In December 2000, two East Timorese women testified about their experiences as sexual slaves before the Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal for the Trial of Japanese Military Sexual Slavery. This testimony points to the fact that these past experiences remain as a wound in these women’s hearts, and that they have not yet found justice for their suffering." Yayasan HAK; Kdadalak Suli Mutu Institute; Gerakan Mahasiswa Pro Demokrasi; Grupo Feto Foin Sae Timor Lorosa’e; East Timor Women Against Violence; East Timor Students Solidarity Council; Sa’he Institute for Liberation; Fokupers; LBH “Ukun Rasik An”; Lao Hamutuk; Centro Desenvolvimento Economia Popular; Fundacao Haburas.

Aug 28 SMH: To forge a future, Timor needs justice for the past  Article from ETimor added Aug 30
" ... we need to overcome the legacy of the past. The international community should remain conscious of the legacy of 24 years of Indonesian occupation. In particular, it is important to remember the "scorched earth" withdrawal of Indonesian troops from East Timor during September and October 1999. Up to 3,000 died in 1999, untold numbers of women were raped and 500,000 persons displaced - 100,000 are yet to return. Those events live on in the minds of Timorese despite the apparent material progress of the past two years. " Bishop Carlos Belo

August 2001 LHB: Women and the Reconstruction of East Timor  Bulletin intro added Aug 22
"Women have played a critical role in East Timor’s struggle for national independence. Both inside the country and in the diaspora, they courageously challenged the Indonesian invasion and occupation, as well as the international support that made these possible. East Timorese women have survived Indonesian military campaigns of violence, including forced sterilization, rape and sexual slavery. They have shown themselves as leaders, though they are often pushed aside in political discussions. And women have continued to struggle for equality throughout the United Nation’s administration of East Timor." La'o Hamutuk: East Timor Institute for Reconstruction Monitoring and Analysis

August 2001 LHB: Catholic Women’s Conference in Rome  Article added Aug 22
"At the WUCWO meeting in Rome, international representatives approved a list of 15 resolutions, which they have since forwarded to Pope John Paul II, the United Nations and many other influential individuals and organizations. ... * To give special attention and care to women and babies who are victims of sexual crimes in war and to do everything possible to stop the crimes of war and violence." La'o Hamutuk: East Timor Institute for Reconstruction Monitoring and Analysis

Aug 18 SMH: After 26 years, Timorese about to begin life again  Article added Aug 18
"Among Fretilin’s younger candidates is Jose Lobato Goncalves, 29, the son of East Timor’s founding guerilla commander, Nicolau Lobato, who took to the mountains in the first hours of the Indonesian landing. His wife, Isabel, was caught in Dili and publicly executed on the wharf. She had been nursing two-year-old Jose before the troops dragged her away, but managed to thrust him into her sister’s arms at the last moment. ... Today he is a replica of his father in looks and intelligence and has an obvious future as a national leader. He is just one of hundreds of thousands of Timorese for whom life is resuming after 26 years: it is indeed a rebirth." Jill Jolliffe (in Dili), freelance journalist, author of 'Cover-Up: The Inside Story of the Balibo Five' [to be published Oct 16]

Jul 30 Guard: Traumatized E.Timor sex slaves of the militias in W. Timor  Article added Aug 1
"Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of East Timorese women were forced across the border by the Indonesian military and their militia allies in those hectic days of rage after the vote. They became sex slaves of the militias, which still control the refugee camps, and even those who managed to get away are profoundly traumatised. ... Earlier this month, Igidio Manek was arrested, with 22 other militia fighters, by the Indonesian military. However, it was not for his kidnapping and rape of a minor, nor because he is sought by UN prosecutors for his role in the Suai massacre in 1999, but because an Indonesian soldier was killed during rioting by his Laksaur militiamen in the border town of Atambua." Victoria Brittain, Dili

Jul 17 IANSA: East Timorese Refugees in Militia-Controlled Camps  Article added July 26
"In addition to displacing 70 percent of East Timor’s population, the TNI and its militias killed an unknown number of people at least 1500 in September 1999 alone and raped hundreds of women and girls. While East Timor is now free of Indonesian troops, TNI and militia terror remains the daily reality for the approximately 100,000 East Timorese who remain in refugee camps in West Timor. One of these refugees is Juliana dos Santos of Suai, East Timor." Diane Farsetta, East Timor Action Network

Jul 16 Free East Timor Japan Coalition letter to the Defense Agency  Letter added Aug 4
"In World War II the Japanese army occupied Portuguese Timor (East Timor) for three and a half years but has never paid compensation, or even apologized, for the great sacrifice this entailed for the people. Women who were victims of the Japanese military's system of sexual slavery, for instance, are still carrying the wounds, left festering, from that occupation. For a country that has yet to compensate for the crimes its military committed in the past to send its army there again now is not a very humanly decent thing to do." Free East Timor Japan Coalition

Jun 30 JCCJP: Japanese church leaders oppose Japanese troops in East Timor  Position statement added July 10
"Most Japanese people want Japan to contribute to world peace first and foremost by strictly adhering to its war-renouncing “peace constitution.” ... The present government plan to send the SDF to join a peace keeping operation in East is directly opposed to theses, the fervently held wishes of our people. Furthermore, this newly planned dispatch of Japanese troops to East Timor is particularly callous in light of the Government’s refusal to this day to fully acknowledge, apologize for, or compensate the army’s sex slaves and other victims of Japan’s occupation of East Timor during the Pacific War." Japanese Catholic Council for Justice and Peace

Jun 14 CSUCS: Child Soldiers Global Report 2001 - East Timor Chapter  Report added June 25
"Past Child Recruitment and Deployment: The Indonesian armed forces provided pro-integration militias – particularly KOPASSUS special forces – with training, arms and funding. “The first time they took me from my house we had to rape a woman and then kill anything we could find like animals and people. They ordered us to rape. We did this together. Everyday we were taken by them by car to burn houses, kill animals and harass people ... They screamed and shouted when they had killed people and showed off their machetes covered in blood and said ‘Eat the People’.” Former Militia Child Soldier, 16 years old." Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers

Jun 6 U.S. NGO letter to Powell re. intl tribunal for East Timor  Petition added June 9
"The attorney general’s office has not investigated any cases of violence against women, which was a major component of 1999’s violence. Given the long history of violence against East Timorese women by Indonesian security forces, including rape and involuntary sterilization campaigns, any judicial process must pay special attention to crimes against humanity involving gender violence.  We remain deeply concerned about East Timorese women and girls who continue to be violated in militia-controlled refugee camps in Indonesia, including some held as sexual slaves." 33 U.S. Non-government organisations

28 April – 5 May 2001 CSW: Joint Mission to East Timor  Report added June 30
"Recommendations: That the Indonesian authorities, the UN, and the international community work hard and in co-operation to secure the safety and freedom of Juliana dos Santos, and other young women in captivity in West Timor;" Dr Martin Panter & Benedict Rogers, Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW)

Major Report
31 Jan 2000 KPP HAM's Secret Report on Crimes Against Humanity in East Timor
"Cases of violence towards women identified by the Investigative Commission included torture and public sexual humiliation by the militia and the TNI, forcing under age females to serve the sexual needs of the militia, enforced prostitution and rape. Rape of East Timor women was characterised by these situations: (a) one perpetrator with one woman, (b) more than one perpetrator with one woman, (c) more than one perpetrator with a number of women at one location, and (d) use of one fixed location where the act of rape was carried out several times.
Chapter IV: Cases of note (January-October 1999):
IV.14 Violence towards women: IV.14.1 Sexual enslavement:
IV.14.1.1 Case 1
From statements by witnesses and citizens around the office of the village of Wemasa, at the end of September 1999 a number of mothers and children were set down from a car that stopped next to the village complex of Wemasa-Raihenek, Kobalima Subdistrict, Regency of Belu, East Nusatenggara. According to witness statements, they were separated from other refugees because they were thought to be pro-independence sympathisers. Numbers were not known, nor was anything known about the husbands. They were placed in a tarpaulin tent near the Wemasa village office. The position and situation were very open, and people outside could see the situation inside the tent.
155. Every night between 2000 and 2100 hours a group of Laksaur militia would come to these tents and rape the mothers. A witness told of a case of sexual enslavement of a mother who was still breastfeeding her child and was forced to serve members of the Laksaur militia. This testimony was strengthened by other witnesses who still maintained family relationships with the victims. Another witness reported a case of shooting of a female refugee who reused to have a sexual relationship with members of the Laksaur militia. The victim was shot in the back with a home made weapon by a Laksaur militiaman.
156. Early information concerning the locking up of 30 women in a refugee centre was followed up by contacting a witness at Wemasa. From the information obtained the women had scattered to the area of Raihenek (Kobalima Subdistrict, Belu Regency, East Nusatenggara) so that it was difficult to locate them. From witness statements, the women experienced sexual violence at the hands of the militia.
IV.14.1.2 Case 2
157. From the statement of a witness—whose two friends had become victims of detention and prostitution (A and M) brought from East Timor and forced to live with Commandant Kompi Mahidi, J, in East Nusatenggara. They came from the same district, Ainaro. The two women were forced to ome by Hatubiliko (an East Timor army group formed by the TNI), when they were bathing. Their home was ransacked and they were taken to Aitekalarang-Ankais, Malaka Berat Subdistrict, on 16 September 1999. They sold vegetables all day long outside J’s house and looked after family interests. At night they had to serve the friends of Dank Mahidi who came to visit and drink at his house, and this included serving them sexually. Their movements were constantly observed by DanKi J and his men. To the witness, A and M said that they were ashamed to return to East Timor because many people knew that they had been kept women of DanKi J and his friends.
IV.14.1.3 Case 3
158. On 6 June 1999, there was an arbitrary arrest of 23 women by the BMP militia at the post near Gugleur, Maubara Subdistrict, Liquica Regency. The victims were forced to cook and wash for the BMP and become victims of sexual violence.
159. Cases of violence towards women, especially rape, were also reported in the report of the UN Special Thematic Reporter of 8 December 1999 (B:566)."
Indonesian Commission of Investigation into Human Rights Violations (KPP HAM)

Major Report
31 Jan 2000 KPP HAM's Secret Report on Crimes Against Humanity in East Timor
"KPP HAM has been successful in collecting facts and proofs that provide strong indications that serious violations of human rights have been carried out in a planned and systematic manner and on a large and wide scale in the form of mass murder, torture and maltreatment, forced disappearance, violence towards women and children (including rape and sexual slavery), forced evacuations, scorched earth policies and destruction of property, all of which constitute crimes towards humanity. ...
KPP HAM also found strong evidence concerning getting rid of and destroying evidence, which is a criminal act. ...
The types of acts and the pattern of crimes against humanity were as follows: The involvement of the civilian and military apparatuses including the police cooperated with the pro-integration militia groups in crimes against humanity. This represented abuse of power and authority and resulted in the involvement of military institutions as well as civil agencies." Indonesian Commission of Investigation into Human Rights Violations (KPP HAM)

Apr 23 SMH: Mary Robinson supports repatriation of Timorese 'war prize'   News added Apr 25
"The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mrs Mary Robinson, has thrown her support behind efforts to free an East Timorese teenage girl taken as a “war prize” by a pro-Indonesian militia leader. ... The case of 16-year old Juliana dos Santos was raised at last month’s 57th congress of the UN Commission on Human Rights by Mrs Kirsty Sword Gusmao, the Australian wife of East Timor’s independence leader, Mr Xanana Gusmao." Mark Dodd, Herald Correspondent in Dili

Major Report
Apr 20 SMH: James Dunn 'Crimes Against Humanity in East Timor, Jan-Oct 99'  Executive summary and recommendations added Apr 20
"The wave of violence led to very serious crimes against humanity. They include: killings, including mass murder, torture, abduction, sexual assault and assault against children, as well as mass deportation, and forced dislocation."
James Dunn, Crimes investigator for United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), 14 February 2001

Apr 6 UN-CHR: Women and HR report  Report added Apr 9
"Militia forces backed and trained by the Indonesian military carried out a systematic campaign of violence during the lead-up to the August 1999 referendum on East Timorese independence, which was organized and administered by the United Nations. When East Timorese nevertheless opted for independence from Indonesia, pro-Indonesian militia and Indonesian soldiers initiated a scorched earth policy, terrorizing the population and committing widespread abuses, including the rape of women and girls. Some women were also reportedly held in sexual slavery." Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy

Apr 5 Reut: New talks on E. Timor campaign to free rape victim  News added Apr 9
"U.N. officials are negotiating with Indonesia to free a 15-year-old East Timorese rape victim, one of many abused as a sex slave by violent militia, a human rights campaigner said on Thursday. Kirsty Sword Gusmao, the Australian-born wife of Timorese freedom fighter Xanana Gusmao, has been been publicizing the case of Juliana dos Santos since September." Evelyn Leopold

Bahasa Indonesia:
Mar 23 CNRT: Kirsty Sword Gusmão Beserta Keluarga Perempuan Yang Diculik Milisi Akan  Release
"Isterinya Presiden CNRT-CN akan berangkat ke Geneva besok bersama bibinya Juliana dos Santos, seorang perempuan berusia 15 tahun yang diculik dan ditahan di Timor Barat sejak tahun 1999. Di Geneva Kirsty Sword Gusmão akan menghadiri suatu konperensi yang diselenggarakan oleh UNHCR dengan tema kekerasan terhadap kaum perempuan. Bersama dengan Ny. Domingas Santa Mouzinho, Ny. Sword Gusmão juga bermaksud untuk menyampaikan suatu pernyataan mengenai situasi Juliana pada Komisi PBB untuk Hak Azasi Manusia."  Sarah Niner & Lurdes Bessa, CNRT

Mar 23 CNRT: Kristy Sword Gusmao & Kidnap Girl's Family to plead case in Geneva  Release
"[Ms Sword Gusmão and kidnap girl's family] hope that if Juliana can be returned it will offer a glimmer of hope to other women, their families and communities and believe that other East Timorese women being held in West Timor by militias in similar circumstances must also be returned." Sarah Niner & Lurdes Bessa, CNRT

Mar 10 AU: East Timor's children of the enemy  Article added Apr 5
"Investigators and women’s organisations agree rape plagued both East Timor and West Timor following the ballot on independence in 1999, and in many cases constituted both a war crime and a crime against humanity. “A lot of rapes happened in the chaos,” Wandita says, explaining that women separated from their families were pounced on by marauding packs of men. But beyond that, she says, many of the rapes were planned, organised and sustained as a joint effort by the military and the militias. “There was obviously collusion,” she says." Sian Powell, Dili

Mar 1 NYT: Sexual Violence as Tool of War: Pattern Emerging in East Timor  Article
"Mr. Senior [UN chief investigator of sex crimes] said the reports he had gathered suggest that some instances of mass rape coincided with massacres that occurred both before the independence vote — in April and May 1999 — and in the three weeks of destruction that followed the Aug. 30 vote. ... Ms. Alves [Timorese counselor] said it was possible that the rapes were part of the destruction of East Timor that investigators are now piecing together as an orchestrated scorched-earth policy commanded by Indonesia's military." Seth Mydans

Feb 23 ST: Rape in ETimor, Gusmao's wife criticizes Indonesia

Feb 5 JP: James Dunn interview on perpetrators of war crimes in Timor
"It has been appalling to hear Timorese women who have been raped; thousands have been raped and no one has been charged. I hope to see a change in that it would be good for military officers' careers to have to speak the truth." James Dunn, UNTAET

Dec 22 2000 IHT: A Family in East Timor Grieves for a Daughter
"Fate has not been kind to the dos Santos family. They have now lost all three children. The first son died from illness at a young age, the second was brutally murdered in the Suai church massacre - and now their only daughter has been kidnapped, raped and is living as a "wife" of one of the leaders of a militia gang responsible for the killing of her brother." Mark Dodd

Dec 10 2000 KY: ETimor: 2 ex-sex slaves break silence at NGO tribunal  Added Dec 11
"Two East Timorese women broke over half a century of silence Sunday and told of their ordeals as sex slaves of the Imperial Japanese Army at a mock tribunal to try the Japanese government over its responsibility for the recruitment of so-called ''comfort women'' before and during World War II." Kyodo

Dec 8 2000 DPA: Women demand apology & compensation for War-time Japanese mistreatment  Added Dec 9
"The Japanese government, which failed to respond to the tribunal's invitation to participate in the event, continues to deny any legal responsibility for the suffering of the former comfort women. Sexual violence committed by the Japanese Imperial Army was hardly touched by the 1946-1948 International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo, set up by the Allied Forces after the war." Deutsche Presse-Agentur

Dec 7 2000 CapT: Village Women of East Timor have great hope  News
"Nearly everyone in Ainaro was forced from their homes following the referendum. Many fled to the mountains while others were coerced into refugee camps in Indonesian West Timor. Those who fled took no more than the clothes on their backs, blankets, tarps and cooking pots. In Ainaro, militia members looted and burned, leaving nothing behind. Women were specifically targeted in many ways -- they were separated from husbands and sons, harassed and often raped. In the refugee camps -- which are mostly populated by women and children -- living conditions are terrible, with food shortages, poor sanitation and rampant disease." Jen Laakso

Nov 22 2000 KY: Danish survey highlights trauma, torture in E. Timor
"Researchers found that torture had been widespread in East Timor. Of the six forms of torture listed in the study, 40% of the respondents said they had been subjected to psychological torture, 33% beaten or mauled, 26% hit on the head. Other forms of torture included submersion in water (12), electric shock (12), and crushing of hands (10). Five percent of the respondents said they had been raped or sexually abused. ... Twenty percent of the respondents said they witnessed the murder of a family member or friend, and the same percentage said they had children who had either been injured or from whom they had been separated. A further 12% said they had children who died as a result of political violence and in some districts there were reports of youngsters having been raped by the militia." Kyodo News Service, from a study by the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT)

Nov 19 2000 AFP: Scars of vote violence remain real for many East Timor women
"Women's groups and rape investigators say the victims of militia rape and sex slavery continue to bear the scars of post-ballot violence in East Timor, facing ostracism on their return home. ... Fokupers has documented 46 cases of rape during last year's violence: nine of them by Indonesian soldiers, 28 by pro-Jakarta militias, and nine of them joint attacks by militias and soldiers. Eighteen were categorized as mass rapes." AFP

Nov 18 2000 Lancet: Torture & trauma in post-conflict East Timor
"To get an indirect measure of the effect of trauma on children, respondents were asked if they had children who were either injured or from whom they had been separated. 227 (22%) said yes, and a further 125 (12%) said that they had children who died as a result of political violence. In several provinces there were reports of children having been raped by the militia." Lancet, from a study by the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT)

Tetum:
Jun 21 2000 Y-HAK: Lopes: Rekonciliasaun Housi Lei Nia Roman
"Hahalok at sira ne’e kulmina wainhira referendum 30 Agostu 1999 ramata, iha ne’ebe povo Timor Lorosa’e maioria hakotu nia hakarak atu sai housi kolonizasaun no okupasaun ne’ebe at, houdi sai povo ne’ebe ukun rasik an. Milicia pro-integrasaun ho tulun no ordem housi TNI hala’o operasaun bumi hangus (sunu mutuk), ne’ebe populasaun civil barak lori todan, liu-liu sira ne’ebe sira (milicia no TNI) konsidera pro-ukun rasik an. Iha operasaun ne’e, populasaun civil barak sai mutun (vitima), balun mate no feto sira ema viola (perkosa), barak mak sira tortura no obriga atu halai, sunu uma no lelan povu nia riku soin." Aniceto Guterres Lopes, Direktor, Yayasan HAK

Jun 21 2000 Y-HAK: Lopes: Reconciliation from a Legal Perspective
"The peak of this oppression occurred after the referendum of August 30, 1999, when an absolute majority of East Timorese society expressed their resolve for freedom from the despicable colonization and occupation practiced by Indonesia. In response, the Indonesian military and their pro-integration militia carried out their scorched earth policy. Countless civilians were victims of murder, rape, and various forms of torture. In addition, the military forced people to flee, burning and looting civilians' property." Aniceto Guterres Lopes, Director, Yayasan HAK

Sept 27 1999 Noam Chomsky: East Timor Retrospective - An overview and lessons
"Terror and destruction began early in the year. The TNI forces responsible have been described as "rogue elements" in the West, a questionable judgment. There is good reason to accept Bishop Belo's assignment of direct responsibility to commanding General Wiranto in Jakarta. It appears that the militias have been managed by elite units of Kopassus, the "crack special forces unit" that had "been training regularly with US and Australian forces until their behaviour became too much of an embarrassment for their foreign friends," veteran Asia correspondent David Jenkins reports. These forces are "legendary for their cruelty," Benedict Anderson observes: in East Timor they "became the pioneer and exemplar for every kind of atrocity," including systematic rapes, tortures and executions, and organization of hooded gangsters. They adopted the tactics of the U.S. Phoenix program in South Vietnam that killed tens of thousands of peasants and much of the indigenous South Vietnamese leadership, Jenkins writes, as well as "the tactics employed by the Contras" in Nicaragua, following lessons taught by their CIA mentors. The state terrorists were "not simply going after the most radical pro-independence people but going after the moderates, the people who have influence in their community." "It's Phoenix," a well-placed source in Jakarta reported: the aim is "to terrorise everyone" -- the NGOs, the Red Cross, the UN, the journalists." Noam Chomsky

1999 Gunn: Timor Loro Sae: 500 Years - Wartime Timor: 1942-45  Book extract added July 10
"Many Timorese including liurai paid with their lives [at the hands of Japanese military 1942-45] either for standing neutral or for alleged support of Australian guerrillas. ... The number of Timorese who died during the war is impossible to calculate with precision but is of the order of 40-70,000 out of a total prewar population of around 450,000. The disruption to native agriculture and the breakdown of prewar society stemming from the harsh system of food collection and corvees imposed by the Japanese inevitably led to famine and other hardships, including debilitating disease. ... The issues of Japanese wartime compensation including the claims of so-called "comfort women" or sexual slavery in Timor first became public in 1997 but only in the Macau media where it was taken up by Jose Ramos-Horta speaking on behalf of the Timorese people." Geoffrey C. Gunn, author, Timor Loro Sae: 500 Years

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Other Violence against women:

Oct 30 UNSC: ET women: ‘Arria formula’ meeting  Speech added Nov 2
"We thank the UN for holding UN peacekeepers responsible for assaults on women. A Jordanian peacekeeper was indicted of rape on August 21 in a Dili court, and his trial is expected to begin shortly." Natércia Godinho-Adams, on behalf of East Timorese women’s organizations

Sep 3 CIIR: Listen to East Timorese women’s voices, urges CIIR  Release added Sep 6
"CIIR’s delegation in East Timor looked at women’s participation in the 30 August elections, met political parties, non-governmental organisations, UN agencies and voters in Dili and in the districts and concluded: ...
- Violence against women is endemic, amplified by the post-conflict situation. ... " Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR)

August 2001 LHB: International Security Forces and Sexual Misconduct  Commentary added Aug 22
"Sexual misconduct by military personnel occurs all over the world. Recent cases of sexual violence against women and children in East Timor show that the problem also exists in UNTAET’s Peace Keeping Forces (PKF) and Civilian Police (CivPol). Although many PKF and CivPol have good relationships with East Timorese, there have been several instances of sexual misconduct: in early 2001, two PKF based in southwest Suai were sent home ‘in disgrace’ after being found guilty of inappropriate behaviour involving East Timorese women; several PKF in Oecusse are currently under investigation after allegations of sexual misconduct; and one CivPol officer is facing a rape charge." La'o Hamutuk: East Timor Institute for Reconstruction Monitoring and Analysis

August 2001 LHB: Catholic Women’s Conference in Rome  Article added Aug 22
"At the WUCWO meeting in Rome, international representatives approved a list of 15 resolutions, which they have since forwarded to Pope John Paul II, the United Nations and many other influential individuals and organizations. ... * To work with men, within the Church and society, to eliminate violence against women in all its forms and throughout all countries." La'o Hamutuk: East Timor Institute for Reconstruction Monitoring and Analysis

Apr 9 AFP: UN peacekeepers fueling trafficking in women  News added Apr 15
“It is absolutely essential that all UN forces are held to the same standards of international human rights law as are nation states, ... To do otherwise creates a climate of impunity in which offences profilerate, ... Now especially where UN is running administrations such as in Kosovo and East Timor we feel it’s absolutely essential that some kind of structure be in place to deal with these kinds of issues, [trafficking of women for prostitution]” Radhika Coomaraswamy, UN expert on violence against women

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