After a brief introduction to Korzybski’s
background and motivation we covered some “basic”
wrote: "We need not blind ourselves with the old dogma that
'human nature cannot be changed', for we find that it can be
changed, i.e. changing premises from P1 => P2
discussed (inter alia):
The map is not ALL the
territory it represents.
Hence uncertainty about territory. Non-absolutism.
The map is not the
territory it represents.
The word is not the thing.
Maps can be made of maps (self-reflexive) and the theory of
The map should be structurally similar to the territory for
Abstracting: leaving out details and adding in others
(over/under defined terms.)
to intensional problem: get more extensional.
Abstracting natural order: from event to, senses, object(non
verbal), label(verbal), etc
Consciousness of abstracting and its implications
watched a few visual illusions to show some of the
Aristotle's other laws of thought.
Horizontal and vertical identity.
conducted the three bowls of water experiment where A can be
both B (warm) and not B (cool) when you have viewpoints and
Identification of orders of abstraction e.g. one name for
many levels, e.g. "X is X".
Non identity A1<>A2
At1 <> At2
opposed to identity of A=A
as absolute sameness and
Projection of properties onto reality I.e. IS of predication
"a rose is red"
Extensional devices as a fix
i.e. date, index, etc, “and
then”, quote and hyphen
orientation to replace Either/Or
Differences in similarities and similarities in differences.
Rather than just similarities
Communication imperfect => expect
miscommunication and index word meaning, e.g. “diets don’t’
work” which on further communication that “most people (95%)
do not keep off the weight they lost in a short term diet.
Nearly 50% not only regain their old weight but put
earlier input can affect our abstracting.
discussed applying the formulations to living a healthy
Health Issues -
To achieve weight loss, one needs
to burn more calories than consumed. Nearly everyone knows
this yet few achieve it.
95% of those who lose some weight put it back on a
few years later.
How to solve the problem?
One needs to change ones behaviour.
motivation, knowledge and intelligent use of knowledge and
Knowledge alone won’t work, and
motivation / willpower alone won’t work.
Examples were given of people failing.
Motivation to lose weight
mass index = weight (kg) / height squared, eg 80kg / 2m^2 =
27+ gives a 3 to 5
times increased risk of diabetes and a doubled
risk of heart attack.
Those with a BMI over 30
have over 300 times the risk of cancer compared to someone
under BMI 25.
Every kilogram of weight when having a BMI over 25 gives a
drop of 2 months of life, all other factors being
The easiest diet is not to get fat in
the first place, Or don't get fatter.
Watch out for Yo-yo diets where
starvation diets that lead to fast weight loss tend to
bounce and gain weight at a fast rate once the diet has
stopped. It’s better to have slow weight loss via a small
reduction in calories consumed and an increase in exercise.
As your muscle mass goes up your BMR goes up.
Starvation makes your muscle mass go down.
It takes a change of lifestyle to
stay at a healthy BMI.
Not a short term diet.
We viewed a video (BBC program
“What’s the Right Diet for You?”
A horizon Special) that applied the formulation of
indexing to weight loss.
Rather than one diet for all, they split the people
up into three groups.
Constant cravers (who like eating “all” the time),
emotional eaters (who eat after an emotional trigger like
stress) and feasters (who once they start eating, find it
hard to stop). One of their dieting methods was the 5:2 regime where you
eat a normal maintenance diet for 5 days a week and then on
two separate days one has a low calorie fast.
It also talked about how to cope with breaking the
lose weight and keep your exercise level the same, you tend
to lose muscle as well as fat. e.g. a lady lost 20 kg
comprising of 16 kg fat & 4 kg muscle. I.e. 25% of
weight lost is muscle. On starvation diets this
goes higher 30 - 50%. 1 kg of muscle can burn up 50
calories a day even without exercise.
So 4 kg = 200 calorie a day which is about a kilogram
weight gain a month on the old maintenance diet.
So exercise more to keep up muscle mass.
Optimal weight loss
This occurs at about 0.25 to 0.5 kg per
week. Slow and steady leads to an easier maintained
weight than does a fast diet. Also it gives the skin
time to shrink flat.
Keep the feeling of hunger
at bay by controlling the size of your stomach. An
empty stomach can lead to hunger pangs but a full one will
do this less.
Research showed that after starving
one is much more likely to eat high fat, high sugar foods
and eat too much.
Have a glass of water
before and with the meal.
Slim down your stomach size by
a third with 4 weeks of low volume/calorie eating. And
don't expand it again by having large meals.
meal sizes down by making breakfast, lunch and dinner about
the same size, i.e. get rid of the one huge meal a day
pattern, as this just keeps your stomach large. Also
eat at reasonably spaced intervals.
Eat high fibre bulky
foods, to give yourself a full feeling on low calories.
And move off the high fat, high sugar, high alcohol, calorie
dense foods. You can do this change of food habits in
about two weeks.
information on filing foods lookup the Satiety Index in the
"European Journal of Clinical Nutrition" (1995).
The body needs a certain amount
of protein a day.
“Managing Your Weight Through GS” by Paul D Johnston in ETC
Vol 52 No 1, and discussed changing our premises as a means
of changing our behaviour.
discussed how eating and exercise affect Cancer
Cancer cell energy mechanisms
work inefficiently compared to a normal cell, which can
produce 19 times the amount of ATP from the same amount of
glucose compared to a cancer cell. Therefore cancer cells
need a lot more glucose to grow.
So starving a cancer is a good strategy, by having a
low calorie diet and keeping the weight down under a BMI of
25 and at least 40 minutes exercise a day to burn up the
food in the blood.
This slows the growth of cancers.
Experiments show that
exercise triggers the body’s natural killer cells that
reduced tumour growth by 60-70%
in one experiment.
found that exercise prompts the release of adrenaline. This
stress hormone in turn stimulates the immune system to send
its cancer-fighting natural killer cells into the
bloodstream. A substance called interleukin-6, which is
released by exercising muscles, then directs these killer
cells to attack the tumours.